Effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygenation Versus Normobaric Oxygenation Therapy in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Systematic Review

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas product of combustion, considered highly poisonous. Prolonged CO exposure is responsible for more than half of fatal poisonings and is also one of the leadingcauses of poisoning in Western countries.We aimed to compare the effectiveness of therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) versus normobaric oxygen (NBO) in the setting of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). We independently searched the National Library of Medicine’s Medline (PubMed™),ScienceDirect™, and Scielo™ for any relevant studies published from 1989 to 2017, using the following keywords: hyperbaric therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, normobaric therapy, carbonmonoxide poisoning, carboxyhemoglobin, Haldane effect. We analyzed the studies that suggested the effectiveness of HBO or NBO. Also, we searched for studies related to COP;including history, epidemiology (risk factors, incidence, demographics), pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.Sixty-eight articles were found, sixteen of which dealt with either HBO or NBO or both. Twelve suggested HBO as the treatment of choice in COP; four studies indicated that NBO was anadequate treatment due to its cost-effectiveness and availability in the emergency department (ED).HBO has been shown in several studies to be effective in moderate to high-risk COP situations, being the therapy of choice to avoid sequelae, especially neurologically. NBO can be consideredas a reasonable alternative due to its cost-effectiveness. The availability and understanding of different therapeutic interventions are critical in the management of patients with COP in ED and the Critical Care unit. 

Categories: Medical clinic, Toxicology